Kathy Patterson


Be aware that numbering is inconsistent at this web site. Use notes taken is class to verify numbers.

  1. a. a definition                      what a word means     c. a component or element  the parts that make up something
  2.      b. an example                     an object that fits the definition
  3. summary                               short restatement of important ideas and details
  4. main idea                              the message or insight that is the focus of a work
  5. paraphrase                            the ideas put into your own words
  6. inference                               an educated guess, reading between the lines, following clues
  7.      Explain the difference in infer and imply.          The sender implies, and the receiver infers.
  8. Narration                             telling a story
  9. analysis                                 breaking something into parts to understand it
  10. a. fact                                   something that can be proven true
  1. Opinion                           a belief or attitude that cannot be proven true
  2. valid opinion                   an opinion supported by facts
  1. literal language using words to communicate their most basic dictionary meaning
  1. figurative language             using words to communicate in other than the most basic dictionary meaning
  2. sender a person who gives a message
  3. receiver                                a person who gets a message
  4. 3 parts of communication       sender, receiver, message
  5. the Rule of Three                     Three points, characters, ideas, etc., are easy to remember and keep clear in the receiver’s mind.
  6. (you are the sender) an essay     a student composition, usually five paragraphs, following a prompt; not a report
  7. thesis statement                           a complete sentence stating the main idea you intend to prove or illustrate     Is a thesis fact or opinion          opinion, that might be valid if your essay proves or demonstrates it
  8.      two parts of a thesis                       Topic and opinion
  9. three parts of an essay            introduction, body and conclusion
  10. two purposes of an introduction
  1. to get the receiver’s attention
  2. to present the topic
  1. What comes at the end of the introduction?      the thesis statement
  2. point                                   a detail which illustrates or proves the thesis.

the most common number of points                 three

  1. the body of an essay                      several paragraphs, each elaborating one of the points
  2.      How are points related to the thesis statement    They prove or illustrate it
  3. concrete detail (CD)                       a fact, which may come from real life or from literature
  4. Name several kinds of concrete details.             facts, explanations, examples, quotations, descriptions, [factual] comparisons, anecdotes.
  5. commentary (CM)                        opinion or judgment
  6. Name kinds of commentary           opinion, interpretation, analysis, explanation, personal reaction, feelings, evaluation, reflection.
  7. What should be the ratio of facts (CD) to commentary in a body paragraph    1:2
  8. one way to start a comment   “This shows that…”
  9. the conclusion                            brief restatement of the main idea; nothing new
  10. the two parts of setting       time, place
  11. a literary device                 when a writer uses words for a purpose
  12. a figure of speech             an expression that suggests unexpected similarities between unrelated things: similes, metaphors, hyperbole, personification, symbols
  13. a simile                            comparing two unlike objects with “like” or “as”
  14. a metaphor                       comparing two unlike objects for literary effect
  15. personification                       giving human traits to nonhuman objects
  16. hyperbole                              figurative exaggeration
  17. allusion                                 referring to a famous person, place, event or story
  18. irony                                 contrast between appearance or expectation and reality
  1. verbal irony                   when you say one thing but mean the opposite—sarcasm, facetious
  2. situational irony           when a situation has the opposite outcome from expected
  3. dramatic irony           when the reader or audience knows something the characters do not know
  1. a character in literature      a person or animal who takes part in a story
  2. two ways an author creates a character
  1. direct characterization    when the narrator tells what a character is like
  2. indirect characterization   when a character’s words, thoughts or actions tell about him or her
  1. physical traits                     what a character looks like, health conditions
  2. personality traits                what a character acts like
  3. motivations                       the reasons a character behaves in a certain way
  4. theme                                      general idea or insight about life revealed by a work of literature
  5. image/imagery                     word pictures; descriptive words and phrases that re-create sensory experience–sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste, and motion
  6. symbol /symbolism              a simple thing that represents a more complicated thing
  7. foreshadowing                     hints that suggest future happenings in a story
  8. flashback                            interruption of the action to show events that took place earlier
  9. idiom                                   an expression that has a different meaning from the words that make it up; peculiar to a particular language
  10. cliché                                  an overused expression
  11. proverb                                a condensed but memorable saying about life that is taken as true by many people
  12. dialect         language spoken in a particular place or by a particular group of people
  13. oxymoron   a self-contradictory phrase
  14. literary devices based on common practice:
  1. repetition                        using the same words or phrases more than once
  2. parallelism                     a series of words, phrases or sentences with similar grammatical form
  3. paradox                          two assertions that seem to be contradictory
  4. euphemism                      substitution of a non-offensive expression for one whose meaning is harsh or unpleasant
  5. unreliable narrator           when you can’t depend on the truthfulness or accuracy of the person telling the story
  1. protagonist                         central character in a story
  2. antagonist                           a character or force that works against the central character in a story
  3. hero or heroine                   a character more courageous, noble, intelligent, strong, or good than other people.
  4. trickster                                a clever, mischievous character, often a rebel against authority
  5. genre                                     category in which literature is classified; also categories of music and art
  6. four genres of literature.      fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama
  7. fiction                                 a prose narration that tells an imaginary story; may be based on real people or events; uses plot, characters and setting; novels and short stories
  8. poetry                                 rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery to appeal to our emotions and imagination
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